publication PMID: 33041240 DOI: 10.1016/j.anpedi.2020.08.003
[Article in Spanish]
Introduction: Early identification of neonates exposed to drugs of abuse during pregnancy allows a more precise clinical management.
Objectives: To describe the clinical characteristics and to identify risk factors associated with the early detection of neonates exposed to drugs of abuse in a Neonatal Intermediate and Intensive Care Unit.
Methods: Prospective observational study of neonates with and without clinical suspicion of prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse. Meconium was analyzed using standard chromatographic techniques. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyzes were performed.
Results: 372 neonates were included. Exposure to drugs of abuse was detected in 49 (13.2%) cases: in 41 (83.7%) one drug and in 8 (16.3%) more than one. Somatometry at birth revealed: a) lower length percentile in those exposed to some drug, more than one and cannabis; b) lower weight percentile in those exposed to cannabis and of these compared to those exposed to alcohol. In neonates older than 34 pregnancy weeks (PW): a) lower length percentile in those exposed to any substance; b) lower percentile of length and weight in exposed to more than one. The most clinically relevant independent risk factors useful to detect cases of prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse were (Odds ratio (95% CI)): reason for admission other than prematurity (5.52 (2.55-1.93)), length percentile less than 33 (1.95 (1.05-3.60) and 2.14 (1.04-3.40) in older than 34 PW) and social dystocia/uncontrolled pregnancy in older than 34 PW (4.47 (1.03-19.29)).
Conclusions: There are somatometric alterations and risk factors that can help in the early detection of neonates exposed to drugs of abuse. The somatometric alterations identified can be useful to extend the differential diagnosis of these alterations and to study their causes.
Keywords: Biomarcadores; Biomarkers; Exposición prenatal; Meconio; Meconium; Neonatal Intensive Care Unit; Prenatal exposure; Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales.
Copyright © 2020. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.